The origin of life.
Everywhere we look today, except perhaps in volcanic vents, we see rampant living organisms that have successfully colonized the Earth. Before four and a half billion years ago, it was dead. So, the question is: how and when did life appear here?
It is reported that the universe contains about 102 0 of stars with properties similar to our sun. (1 02 0 is 100,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000.)
Of these, at least 10% have their planetary system. If even one of the ten thousand planets were so far from its sun that it would be a condition similar to our sun and life could have arisen, there would be living in the universe in 1015 places (i.e., a million billion places).
The question remains whether the hypothesized origin of life on our planet was something unique and improbable, exceptional and completely random, or whether it was, under the conditions, is a rather probable and expected phenomenon. Perhaps masses and, under the right conditions, will, as a rule, sooner or later turn into life, perhaps not. However, since life exists on our earth, we can assume based on pure statistics that we are not alone in the universe and in a sufficiently significant way. However, this way of thinking is more akin to mathematically based astronomers; biologists are more cautious.
If the Earth were a little further from the Sun, its surface would be more excellent so that chemical reactions would be prolonged, water would exist only as ice, and carbon compounds would be formed or not formed at all or would be prone to decay. If Earth were closer to the Sun, it would be warmer; individual molecules would move faster, chemical bonds would not be very stable, and very few carbon compounds would be formed. The evolution of living forms based on carbon compounds is probably only possible in a very narrow range of temperatures. These temperatures are then determined by the distance of the Earth e from the sun.
Another critical factor is the size of the Earth. If Earth were smaller, it would not have enough gravitational force to maintain its atmosphere (the situation on the Moon, for example). If it were more extensive, the atmosphere would be so dense that the sun’s radiation would already be absorbed in the upper layers of that atmosphere and would never penetrate the Earth. The imaginary throat through which Earth had to fly to give rise to life was very narrow.
These facts must be taken seriously. All life that we know is based on the atomic power of carbon and its compounds. From the physical for physical reasons, life could not possibly exist based on, say, sulfur or phosphorus atoms, not for biological reasons, but physical reasons. So, it cannot be said that if Earth were smaller or larger, hotter or colder, life would exist in a different form: by all accounts, it would not exist at all.
It is admirable how many varied conditions must have been met for life to appear on Earth. For one thing, they have been fulfilled; otherwise, for example, this book would not have been written. And when life appeared on Earth, there were broadly three views on this that we can take as well. The first would be the idea that the germs of life came to Earth from somewhere in the universe. Therefore, the Earth is not the cradle of life; life originated elsewhere, in the universe, and only later colonized the Earth. Proponents of this view argue that, given the complexity of present-day organisms such as mammals and the presumed evolutionary speed, The Earth is too young for life to have originated here from the simplest atoms. The 4.7 billion years, for which today we estimate the age of the Earth to be, is too short a time for the carbon dioxide, water, and other substances to give rise to man.
It has to be said that nobody knows anything about the evolutionary rates at which life originated. The evolutionary rates of the first living cells are also a very problematic issue. In addition to molecular biological principles, ecological principles also determine the rate at which new species arise (speciation). Speciation can sometimes be very fast (e.g., after a catastrophe and the subsequent release of ecological niches), sometimes very slow (e.g., trilobites, which did not change much during the entire primordial epoch). It also depends on the specific number of individuals (= experiments) available.
But the answer does not solve the problem of the origin of life; it just moves it somewhere else. Life had to originate somewhere. On the contrary, if the germs of life were transported from somewhere, they would have to overcome the not very favorable environment of space – vacuum and a temperature of about 2° Kelvin (about -271°C).
The nuclei of comets and the like have been considered the extraterrestrial origin of life; however, there are several problems. Life on Earth was established by the strict intervention of God or another intelligent being. This is the oldest hypothesis for the origin of life on Earth and probably has the most comprehensive support among believers.
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